Variation in hedonic ratings as a function of group and the price of the sparkling wine. Hedonic ratings were initially reported on a scale of 1 to 10. Each participant’s ratings were normalised based on the individual’s mean. The group means and standard errors are plotted here (experts in blue, intermediates in black, and novice tasters in grey) for each bottle of sparkling wine. The experts and intermediates gave the highest ratings for the £40 Mumm Vintage 2004, while the novices preferred the £75 Blanc de Noir, Mumm de Verzenay. The experts rated the Perrier-Jouët Belle Epoque Blanc de Blancs 2002 (£400) as average, which was much better than either the intermediate or novice drinkers who rated it well below average, suggesting that particularly expensive (aged) wines might only be appreciated by experienced tasters.