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Table 1 Noticeability and perceived intensity of each taste quality under open and closed nostril conditions

From: Retronasal aroma allows feature extraction from taste of a traditional Japanese confection

Taste quality Noticeability Perceived intensity
Open nostril Closed nostril Open nostril Closed nostril
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Sweetness 5.61 ± 0.91 4.07 ± 2.05 3.98 ± 0.55 2.92 ± 1.26
Umami 2.52 ± 2.27 1.75 ± 1.96 1.86 ± 1.61 1.29 ± 1.29
Saltiness 1.97 ± 1.87 1.35 ± 1.77 0.86 ± 0.88 0.67 ± 0.84
Sourness 1.17 ± 1.91 0.83 ± 1.74 0.36 ± 0.60 0.30 ± 0.59
Bitterness 1.22 ± 1.97 0.86 ± 1.75 0.31 ± 0.59 0.19 ± 0.39
  1. SD, standard deviation.