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Table 2 Summary of the results of those studies that have investigated the impact of noise on taste/flavour perception

From: Noise and its impact on the perception of food and drink

Study Noise presentation Number of participants Noise level (and type) Foodstuff Method Results
Pettit [20] External 84 80 ± 5 dB (restaurant noise) Tomato juice Preference judgments amongst three juice samples No effect of noise on preference judgments
McFadden et al. [19] Headphones 4 70 dB (narrowband noise) Sweet and salty solutions Threshold psychophysics No effect of noise on threshold or suprathreshold intensity judgments
6 Magnitude estimation
Christensen and Vickers [18] Headphones 16 100 dB (radio static) 16 wet and dry foods Magnitude estimation No significant effect of noise
Viscous liquids Magnitude estimation No effect of noise
Ferber and Cabanac [35] Headphones 10 70/90 dB (noise) Sweet and salty solutions Magnitude estimation Significant effect of loud noise and music on hedonic responses to sweet (but not salty) solutions
90 dB (music)
Masuda et al. [50] Headphones 7 82 dB (noise) Moist and dry pretzels Two-alternative forced choice Significant effect on ratings of moist (but not dry) pretzels
Woods et al. [21] Headphones 48 75–85 dB (noise) Pringles/cheese LMS Sweetness & saltiness ratings significant
45–55 dB (noise) Biscuit/flapjack LMS Lower with loud noise, liking ratings not significant
Woods et al. [21] Headphones 34 75–85 dB (noise) Flavoured rice cakes LMS Crunchiness ratings higher with loud noise
    45–55 dB (noise) Flavour and liking ratings not significant
Seo et al. [55] Headphones 38 70/82 dB (verbal or party noise) Odorants Triangle test Verbal noise > effect than party noise > quiet; odour discrimination worse
Stafford et al. [12] Headphones 80 Noise Alcoholic drinks Visual analogue scales Alcoholic beverages rated significantly sweeter
Noise and shadowing Alcoholic drinks Visual analogue scales Worse discrimination of alcohol content
Seo et al. [56] Headphones 39 Verbal noise Odorants Triangle test Introverts’ performance significantly worse, extroverts’ performance significantly better