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Table 2 Summary of results of published studies showing crossmodal correspondences between colours and basic tastes

From: On tasty colours and colourful tastes? Assessing, explaining, and utilizing crossmodal correspondences between colours and basic tastes

Study O’Mahony [35] Heller [24] Koch and Koch [28] Tomasik-Krótki and Strojny [65] Wan et al. [71]
Number of participants 51 2,000 45 519 452
Origin of participants USA (CA) Germany USA (OR) 17 countries 4 countries
Type of participants University students Cross-section of the public Students High school and university students Internet recruits
Black (Bitter) Bitter (Bitter) Bitter
Blue   Salty   Salty  
Green (Bitter) Sour Sour Sour (bitter) Sour
Orange   Sweet Sweet Sweet  
Pink Sweet Sweet
Red Sweet Sweet Sweet Sweet  
Violet   Bitter   Bitter/umami
White Salty Salty Salty Salty
Yellow Sour Sour Sour Sour  
Brown   Bitter   
Grey   Salty  
  1. The participants in these studies were either given the names of one of the four or five basic tastes and had to pick a matching colour or else rate how well (or badly) the colour matched a given taste. The strongest crossmodal correspondences are shown, while weaker correspondences appear in brackets
  2. Note: Dashes denote the fact that this colour was not tested in this study. Note also that not all of the colour options are shown for every study