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Table 2 Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS-FID in sués, sautéed, and pan-fried onions

From: Evaluation of aroma profile differences between sué, sautéed, and pan-fried onions using an innovative olfactometric approach

      Sué onion Sautéed onion juice Pan-fried onion juice  
  Compounds CAS number Calculated LRI Literature LRI Peak surface Percent total peak area Peak surface Percent total peak area Peak surface Percent total peak area Significance peak area
  Total peak area       2.4E+07c   3.8E+07b   1.0E+08a   **
Carboxylic acid             
1 Acetic acid 64 19 7 1471 1427-1479 NDb   NDb   6.8E+05a   ***
2 Propanoic acid 79 9 4 1565 1487-1574 8.9E+04ab   6.6E+04b   1.3E+05a   *
3 Hexanoic acid 142 62 1 1908 1815-1938 2.4E+05b   2.6E+05b   4.1E+05a   *
  Total carboxylic acid       3.3E+05b 1.4 3.3E+05b 0.9 1.2E+06a 1.2 ***
Aldehydes             
4 Acetaldehyde 75 7 0 707 677-744 2.5E+05b   5.3E+05b   2.4E+06a   ***
5 Propanal 123 38 6 801 769-828 2.5E+06b   1.6E+06c   7.0E+06a   ***
6 2-Methylpropanal 78 84 2 819 800-858 NDb   2.0E+05b   2.1E+06a   ***
7 (E)-2-Propenal 107 2 8 852 828-864 9.2E+04b   6.3E+04b   1.5E+05a   ***
8 Butanal 123 72 8 884 850-911 5.1E+04b   4.1E+04b   1.6E+05a   **
9 2-Methylbutanal 96 17 3 923 880-937 5.4E+04b   9.3E+05b   5.8E+06a   ***
10 3-Methylbutanal 590 86 3 926 902-961 1.4E+05b   2.1E+06b   1.6E+07a   ***
11 Pentanal 110 62 3 988 950-1003 4.1E+05b   4.6E+05b   6.9E+05a   **
12 Hexanal 66 25 1 1097 1067-1099 1.5E+06c   2.1E+06b   2.8E+06a   ***
13 (E)-2-Methyl-2-butenal 497 3 0 1115 1069-1113 4.8E+04b   6.5E+04b   1.7E+06a   ***
14 (E)-2-Methyl-2-pentenal 623 36 9 1180 1143-1177 4.1E+05b   2.9E+05b   1.7E+06a   ***
15 Heptanal 111 71 7 1198 1174-1214 1.8E+05b   2.7E+05a   1.6E+05b   *
16 Octanal 124 13 0 1306 1274-1340 1.4E+05c   2.7E+05b   4.7E+05a   ***
17 (E)-2-Heptenal 18829 55 5 1350 1313-1332 2.6E+05b   6.3E+05a   7.7E+05a   *
18 Nonanal 124 19 6 1416 1376-1423 2.00E+05   3.2E+05   4.1E+05   NS
19 (E)-2-Octenal 2363 89 5 1462 1424-1467 2.30E+05   2.8E+05   3.5E+05   NS
20 Benzaldehyde 100 52 7 1573 1488-1585 2.1E+05c   4.2E+05b   6.7E+05a   **
21 (E,E)-2,4-Decadienal 25152 84 5 1876 1763-1858 3.4E+05b   5.7E+05a   6.0E+05a   **
  Total aldehydes       7.0E+06c 29.8b 1.1E+07b 29.4b 4.4E+07a 43.7a ***
Ketones             
22 2-Propanone 67 64 1 823 820-858 7.6E+05c   1.1E+06b   1.3E+06a   **
23 2-Butanone 78 93 3 910 881-913 3.1E+04b   4.1E+04b   2.0E+05a   ***
24 2,3-Butanedione 431 3 8 980 975-1000 NDb   NDb   2.6E+05a   ***
25 2,3-Pentanedione 600 14 6 1065 973-1082 2.1E+04b   4.9E+04b   2.8E+05a   ***
26 2-Undecanone 112 12 9 1635 1570-1628 1.60E+05   1.7E+05   2.2E+05   NS
27 2-Tridecanone 593 8 8 1864 1783-1816 1.5E+05a   1.2E+05a   NDb   ***
  Total Ketones       1.1E+06c 4.7 1.5E+06b 3.9 2.3E+06a 2.3 ***
Hydrocarbons             
28 Pentane 109 66 0 500 500 3.60E+05   5.2E+05   5.7E+05   NS
29 Hexane 110 54 3 600 600 5.1E+04b   1.3E+05a   4.5E+04b   **
30 Cyclopentane 287 92 3 634 / 8.20E+05   7.2E+05   8.3E+04   NS
31 1-Octene 111 66 0 859 822-892 4.9E+04b   7.8E+04a   8.8E+04a   **
32 Decane 124 18 5 1000 1000 8.00E+04   1.3E+05   1.1E+05   NS
33 Dodecane 112 40 3 1193 1200 7.4E+04b   4.9E+05a   8.2E+04b   ***
34 Tetradecane 629 59 4 1400 1400 NDb   8.4E+04a   NDb   ***
  Total Hydrocarbons       1.40E+06 6.08a 2.1E+06 5.7a 9.7E+05 1.0b NS
Sulfur compounds             
35 Methanethiol 74 93 1 689 643-699 3.1E+04c   6.0E+04b   1.8E+05a   ***
36 Dimethyl sulfide 75 18 3 758 724-777 4.1E+04b   3.5E+04b   4.7E+05a   ***
37 1-Propanethiol 107 3 9 843 817-845 7.8E+04c   1.5E+05b   3.0E+05a   ***
38 (Z)-1-Propenyl methyl sulfide 52195 40 1 1003 1006 NDb   NDb   1.2E+05a   ***
39 (E)-1-Propenyl methyl sulfide 42848 6 6 1028 1006 5.5E+04b   6.2E+04b   1.3E+05a   ***
40 1-Pentanethiol 110 66 7 1055 1039-1055 4.4E+04c   6.7E+04b   8.0E+04a   ***
41 Dimethyl disulfide 624 92 0 1096 1057-1120 NDb   NDb   8.5E+05a   ***
42 2-Methylthiophene 554 14 3 1112 1078-1120 NDb   NDb   5.7E+04a   ***
43 3-Methyltiophene 616 44 4 1139 1093-1158 NDb   5.0E+04b   2.1E+05a   ***
44 2,5-Dimethylthiophene 638 2 8 1212 1187-1248 2.1E+05b   3.0E+05b   9.1E+05a   ***
45 3,4-Dimethylthiophene 632 15 5 1215 1240-1257 1.5E+05c   3.0E+05b   6.3E+05a   ***
46 Methyl propyl disulfide 2179 60 4 1257 1213-1243 1.3E+05b   1.9E+05b   5.3E+05a   ***
47 2,4-Dimethylthiophene 638 0 6 1278 1183-1264 1.5E+06c   3.6E+06b   1.1E+07a   ***
48 (Z)-1-Propenyl methyl disulfide 23838 18 8 1292 1245-1273 7.8E+05b   1.5E+06b   4.3E+06a   ***
49 (E)-1-Propenyl methyl disulfide 5905 47 5 1318 1268-1297 8.7E+05b   2.4E+06b   1.2E+07a   ***
50 Dipropyl disulfide 629 19 6 1411 1370-1396 3.4E+05a   1.8E+05b   1.1E+05b   ***
51 Dimethyl trisulfide 3658 80 8 1426 1370-1427 1.5E+05b   4.9E+05b   2.5E+06a   ***
52 (Z)-1-Propenyl propyl disulfide 23838 20 2 1451 1404-1407 7.3E+05a   6.1E+05a   4.0E+05b   *
53 (E)-1-Propenyl propyl disulfide 5905 46 4 1474 1410-1447 1.20E+06   1.1E+06   1.3E+06   NS
54 Methional 3268 49 3 1490 1448-1479 NDb   3.2E+05b   4.1E+05a   ***
55 Methyl propyl trisulfide 17619 36 2 1586 1494-1521 4.20E+05   5.5E+05   6.8E+05   NS
56 Dipropyl trisulfide 6028 61 1 1737 1636-1738 2.5E+05a   2.0E+05b   1.5E+05c   ***
57 3,5-Diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane 54644 28 9 1816 1744-1762 4.5E+05a   3.2E+05ab   2.5E+05b   *
  Total sulfur compounds       7.4E+06b 31.4b 1.2E+07b 32.2b 3.8E+07a 37.7a ***
Furans             
58 2-Methylfuran 534 22 5 877 843-876 8.6E+04b   1.0E+05ab   1.4E+05a   *
59 2,4-Dimethylfuran 3710 43 8 976 943-958 2.9E+06a   3.68E+06a   1.64E+05b   ***
60 2-Pentylfuran 3777 69 3 1242 1236-1243 4.1E+05ab   6.4E+05a   3.0E+05b   **
61 Furfural 98 1 1 1494 1384-1493 1.3E+05c   1.4E+06b   2.0E+06a   ***
62 2-Acetylfuran 1192 62 7 1544 1475-1538 NDc   1.2E+05b   2.0E+05a   ***
63 5-Methylfurfural 620 2 0 1617 1542-1608 NDb   3.4E+05a   2.5E+05a   ***
64 2-Furanmethanol 98 0 0 1695 1636-1693 6.3E+05b   1.1E+06a   1.3E+06a   *
  Total furans       4.16E+06b 17.6 7.4E+06a 19.7 4.4E+06b 4.4 ***
Pyrrole             
65 2-Acetylpyrrole 1072 83 9 2068 1935-2066 NDb 0.0b NDb 0.0b 5.0E+06a 0.5a ***
Alcohol             
66 Ethanol 64 17 5 940 900-956 3.4E+05b 1.4 4.6E+05b 1.2 9.3E+05a 0.9 *
  Total non identified compounds       1.78E+06c 7.5ab 2.68E+06b 7.1b 8.26E+06a 8.3a ***
  1. Compounds in italics are those not confirmed by all means of identification and therefore considered as tentatively identified. Asterisks indicate differences between peak area values of onion preparations with a significance according to one-way analysis of variance *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001. NS indicates no differences between peak area values of onion preparations according to one-way analysis of variance. Different letters (a, b, c) between columns indicate significant differences in the peak area values of onion preparations according to least significant difference test (p ≤ 0.05)