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Table 3 Olfactometric profiles of sués, sautéed, and pan-fried onions

From: Evaluation of aroma profile differences between sué, sautéed, and pan-fried onions using an innovative olfactometric approach

LRI experiment Compound CAS number Poles and descriptors (in brackets) most cited by judges Identification Sué onion Sauteed onion Pan-fried onion Significance
LRI in literature Compound odor description in the literature Detection Average score Detection Average score Detection Average score
545 Hydrogen sulfide 7784 6 4 Animal (feet), sulfurous 480-560 Rotten egg (a) 1 0.3 3 0.3 3 1.0 NS
701 Methanethiol 74 93 1 Animal (feet), sulfurous (cabbage) 643-699 Sulfurous (a) 5 1.9 5 2.5 7 3.8 NS
Acetaldehyde 75 7 0 677-744 Etherial (a)
769 Dimethyl sulfide 75 18 3 No consensus 724-777 Sulfurous (a) 0 0.0b 0 0.0b 4 1.3a **
802 Propanal 123 38 6 Chemical, acid 769-828 Etherial (a) 2 0.4 1 0.1 3 1.3 NS
824 2-Methylpropanal 78 84 2 No consensus 820-858 Spicy (a) 0 0.0b 1 0.10b 5 2.8a ***
844 1-Propanethiol 107 3 9 Sulfurous 817-845 Alliaceous (a) 7 4.4 6 4.3 7 4.6 NS
895 No peak     Sulfurous    3 1.0 1 0.3 5 2.0 NS
926 3-Methylbutanal 590 86 3 Animal (feet), malty 902-949 Aldehydic (a) 2 0.6b 6 3.7a 7 5.7a ***
936 Propenthiol 925 89 3 Sulfurous, pyrogenic (broth) 895-960 Raw Welsh onion (b) 8 5.3 8 5.5 8 5.9 NS
and/or Propylene sulfide 1072 43 1 875-915  
979 2,3-Butanedione 431 3 8 Aldehydic (butter), sweet 975-1000 Buttery (a) 4 1.7 5 3.1 6 4.0 NS
1001 (Z)-1-Propenyl methyl sulfide 52195 40 1 Sulfurous, pyrogenic, unknown 1006 Garlic (a) 0 0.0b 0 0.0b 4 1.8a *
1021 (E)-1-Propenyl methyl sulfide 42848 6 6 Sulfurous, pyrogenic 1006 Garlic (a) 1 0.2b 4 1.0ab 4 2.0a *
1051 1-Pentanethiol 110 66 7 Sulfurous, animal 1039-1055 Sulfurous (a) 4 1.6 5 1.9 3 1.5 NS
1060 2,3-Pentanedione 600 14 6 Aldehydic (butter), sweet 973-1082 Buttery (a) 0 0.0b 0 0.0b 4 1.8a **
1096 Hexanal 66 25 1 Herbal, pyrogenic (caramel) 1067-1099 Green (a) 2 0.7 3 1.4 3 1.1 NS
1110 Dimethyl disulfide 624 92 0 Sulfurous 1057-1120 Sulfurous (a) 3 0.7b 7 3.1a 6 2.2a **
2-Methylthiophene 554 14 3 1078-1120 Sulfurous (a)
1126 (Z)-1-Propenyl propyl sulfide 33922 70 2 Sulfurous   Garlic (a) 4 1.6 5 2.0 6 2.6 NS
and/or (E)-1-Propenyl propyl sulfide 37981 34 3   
1139 3-Methylthiophene 616 44 4 Sulfurous 1093-1158   5 2.4ab 3 1.4b 6 3.9a *
1152 No peak     Sulfurous    5 2.5 6 2.9 5 3.2 NS
1169 Diallyl sulfide 592 88 1 Sulfurous 1118-1170 Sulfurous (a) 4 1.4 3 1.5 5 2.7 NS
1195 Unknown peak     Sulfurous (gas)    3 1.5 3 1.5 1 0.4 NS
1221 2,5-Dimethylthiophene 638 2 8 Sulfurous, pyrogenic 1187-1248 Sulfurous (a) 4 1.5 5 1.2 5 1.7 NS
3,4-Dimethylthiophene 632 15 5 1240-1257 Roasted onion (a)
1237 Unknown peak     Sulfurous    0 0.0b 0 0.0b 3 1.6a *
1248 Methyl propyl disulfide 2179 60 4 Sulfurous 1213-1243 Alliaceous (a) 0 0.0b 4 1.3a 4 1.3a *
1261 Unknown peak     Sulfurous    0 0.0 5 1.5 3 1.7 NS
1281 2,4-Dimethylthiophene 638 0 6 Sulfurous 1183-1264 Boiled onion-like (c) 7 3.8 7 5.3 8 5.6 NS
1315 1-Octen-3-one 4312 99 6 Woody (mushroom) 1298-1323 Earthy (a) 8 6.0 8 6.2 8 6.5 NS
1331 Unknown peak     Sulfurous    6 2.8a 1 0.6b 3 1.7ab ***
1346 Unknown ((E)-2-heptenal trail)     Sulfurous    3 1.6b 4 2.0b 7 4.3a ***
1368 2,6-Dimethylpyrazine 108 50 9 Pyrogenic (roasted) 1300-1360 Chocolate (a) 5 1.9b 7 4.8a 6 4.1a **
Ethylpyrazine 13925 0 3 1334-1353 Nutty (a)
1387 No peak     Sulfurous, pyrogenic    3 1.1 1 0.7 1 0.8 NS
1398 No peak     Sulfurous    3 0.7 4 1.7 6 2.5 NS
1414 Dipropyl disulfide 629 19 6 Sulfurous 1370-1396 Alliaceous (a) 8 5.6 8 5.1 8 5.7 NS
Dimethyl trisulfide 3658 80 8 1370-1427 Alliaceous (a)
1423 Unknown peak     Chemical, sulfurous, pyrogenic    8 5.3 8 4.5 8 5.1 NS
1444 Unknown peak     Sulfurous    4 2.2 5 2.6 5 1.8 NS
1449 (Z) 1-Propenyl propyl disulfide 23838 20 2 Sulfurous 1404-1407 Baked Welsh onion-like (b) 2 1.4 1 0.6 4 1.8 NS
1462 (E) 1-Propenyl propyl disulfide 5905 46 4 Sulfurous 1410-1447 Raw onion-like (b) 6 2.4 7 3.2 5 2.2 NS
and/or allyl propyl disulfide 2179 59 1 1386-1474 Sulfurous (a)
1479 Methional 3268 49 3 Sulfurous (cooked potatoes) 1448-1479 Vegetable (a) 8 6.4 8 6.6 7 6.0 NS
1487 Furfural 98 1 1 Pyrogenic (cooked vegetables), woody 1384-1493 Bready (a) 1 0.1b 2 0.6b 5 2.6a ***
1507 Diallyl disulfide 2179 57 9 Sulfurous, pyrogenic 1463-1256 Alliaceous (a) 0 0.0b 0 0.0b 3 1.5a **
1533 2-Acetylfuran 1192 62 7 Sulfurous, pyrogenic 1475-1538 Balsamic (a) 3 1.6b 3 0.8b 8 4.9a ***
1545 No peak     Sulfurous    7 3.8 3 1.7 6 3.8 NS
1553 Unknown peak (acide propanoic trail)     Sulfurous    4 2.4 3 1.3 4 2.5 NS
1558 Unknown peak (benzaldehyde trail)     Sulfurous    5 3.4 4 2.0 5 2.6 NS
1562 No peak     Sulfurous, pyrogenic    6 3.8 4 2.4 5 2.2 NS
1574 Unknown peak     Sulfurous    8 5.4a 8 6.1a 7 3.3b **
1591 No peak 17619 36 2 Sulfurous 1494-1521 Sulfurous (a) 6 4.7 7 5.1 5 3.0 NS
1599 Unknown peak (5-methylfurfural trail)     Sulfurous    8 5.2 7 6.0 7 5.1 NS
1621 Dimethyl sulfoxide 67 68 5 Sulfurous 1560-1603 Alliaceous (a) 8 5.7 7 2.9 7 5.6 NS
1636 No peak     Sulfurous    5 3.3 6 3.7 5 3.9 NS
1651 Allyl methyl trisulfide 34135 85 8 Sulfurous 1592-1605 Sulfurous (a) 7 5.1 8 5.6 8 5.6 NS
and/or (Z)-Propenyl methyl trisulfide 33368 80 8 1605  
and/or (E)-Propenyl methyl trisulfide 23838 25 7   
1675 Benzeneacetaldehyde 122 78 1 Flower, pyrogenic (roasted), sulfurous, aldehydic 1638-1684 Green (a) 6 4.1 6 2.6 4 1.8 NS
Butyrolactone 96 48 0 1609-1672 Creamy (a)
2-Furanmethanol 98 0 0 1636-1693 Bready (a)
1699 3 -Thiophenecarboxaldehyde 498 62 4 Sulfurous 1666-1693   8 5.6 8 5.5 8 5.6 NS
Dipropyl trisulfide 6028 61 1 1636-1738 Sulfurous (a)
1735 2-Thiophencarboxaldehyde 98 3 3 Sulfurous, aldehydic 1655- 1734   6 4.5 5 2.6 6 2.8 NS
1752 No peak     Sulfurous    1 0.8 4 2.1 5 2.9 NS
1778 No peak 23838 27 9 Sulfurous (raw onion) 1749-1795   5 2.0 6 3.1 1 0.9 NS
1796 (Z)-Propenyl propyl trisulfide 23838 26 8 Chemical, pyrogenic, sulfurous 1728 Onion-like (c) 4 2.1 3 1.3 3 1.1 NS
and/or (E)-Propenyl propyl trisulfide 23838 27 9 1750 Onion-like (c)
and/or Allyl propyl trisulfide 33922 73 5 1699 Sulfurous (a)
1815 Unknown peak     Sulfurous 1762-1785   0 0.0b 0 0.0b 3 1.4a *
1854 Diallyl trisulfide 2050 87 5 Sulfurous, pyrogenic 1775-1789 sulfurous (a) 7 5.1b 8 5.99a 8 5.87a ***
Dipropenyl trisulfide (isomer)      
1858 (E,E) 2,4-Decadienal 25152 84 5 Sulfurous, unknown 1763-1858 Fatty (a) 6 3.0 5 3.4 6 3.9 NS
1884 Unknown     Pyrogenic, unknown    3 1.5a 0 0.0b 5 2.1a *
1954 No peak     Sulfurous (sauteed/pan fried), pyrogenic    3 1.3 2 1.0 2 0.8 NS
1975 Unknown peak     Sulfurous    0 0.0 4 1.1 3 1.1 NS
2043 2-Acetylpyrrole 1072 83 9 Other, sweet, floral 1935-2066 Musty (a) 4 1.4 3 1.4 6 2.4 NS
2071 Unknown peak     Other, pyrogenic    5 3.0 5 1.4 6 2.8 NS
2100 No peak     Pyrogenic (caramel)    6 3.7b 7 5.0a 7 6.0a ***
2115 No peak     Pyrogenic (caramel)    6 2.9 3 2.1 3 2.3 NS
2178 No peak     Pyrogenic    1 1.2 3 0.8 1 0.9 NS
2216 No peak     Pyrogenic (roasted), sulfurous    3 1.1 0 0.0 1 0.5 NS
2241 No peak     Sulfurous    0 0.0b 0 0.0b 3 0.8a *
2255 No peak     Sulfurous, pyrogenic    0 0.0b 0 0.0b 3 1.0a *
  1. Compounds in bold are those for which identification is considered as achieved (based on LRI, MS, odor, and standard). Compounds in italics are those not confirmed by all means of identification and therefore considered as tentatively identified. The gap that can be observed between LRI of some compounds and LRI of the corresponding odorant zones is due to the difference of temperature between the transfer line (200 °C) and the capillary leading to the MS detector (equal to oven temperature). Asterisks indicate differences between intensity score of onion juices with significance according to two-way analysis of variance *p ≤ 0.1; **p ≤ 0.05; ***p ≤ 0.01. NS indicates no differences between intensity scores of onions juices according to two-way analysis of variance. Different letters (a, b) between columns indicate significant differences in the intensity scores of onions juices according to least significant difference test (p ≤ 0.1). For each odorant zone, the non-consensual descriptors belonging to a same pole were grouped by the name of the pole. Odor description: (a) [61], (b) [7, 8], (c) [13]
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