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Fig. 3 | Flavour

Fig. 3

From: Beyond flavour to the gut and back

Fig. 3

Visceral information pathways in the macaque. Visceral afferent information reaches the caudal part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which projects to the parabrachial nucleus in the pons (PBN). The PBN projects to the Thalamus (the visceral not taste part of VPMpc, amygdala (Amy), hypothalamus (HT), and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Visceral information from the Thalamus reaches the visceral part of the Insula, which in turn projects to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The visceral information from the VTA, Amy, Insula, and OFC reaches the ventral striatum (VS). Taste information (not shown in the figure) reaches the taste insula, which projects to the OFC. In the OFC, both oral and visceral information is integrated, in that the responses of OFC taste neurons are decreased to zero by feeding to satiety, which reduces visceral and hormonal satiety signals. As a result of this integration in the OFC, the reward value of taste is represented in the OFC. The OFC projects to the Amy, HT, and the VS. In the ACC, actions are linked associatively with outcomes such as taste to implement actions to obtain goals such as rewards

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